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College of Arts & Sciences
Department of Psychology

Faculty & Staff Directory

James B. Appel

Department of Psychology
University of South Carolina


Dr. James B. Appel, Carolina Distinguished Professor Emeritus, is an internationally known expert in the behavioral pharmacology of LSD, cocaine and related drugs. He was also one of the developers of an important technique, drug discrimination, which is often used to analyze the effects of these substances in vivo. Dr. Appel was one of the founding members of the Society for the Stimulus Properties of Drugs and its president from 1982-83. He is also a Fellow Emeritus in the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology, a Life Member of the American Psychological Association, and a member of the Society for Neuroscience. His research, which was supported continuously for 30 years by the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) and the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), resulted in the publication of more than 250 scientific papers, abstracts and book chapters. Dr. Appel won the USC Educational Foundation Award in 1989. Dr. Appel was born in New York City, received his B. A. degree from Columbia College (Columbia University in the City of New York) and his Ph.D. in psychology from Indiana University. He has worked at Yale University, the University of Chicago, University College, London, U.K., and at the Addiction Research Center (NIDA) in Baltimore in addition to USC. At USC Dr. Appel has taught courses in Introductory Psychology (PSYC 101), Conditioning and Learning (PSYC 400, PSYC 711), History and Systems of Psychology (PSYC 584, PSYC 703D, PSYC 705), Psychopharmacology (PSYC 503, PSYC 735), Proseminar 1 (PSYC 702), and seminars in Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychology (PSYC 836). He also played a role in the development of a graduate level certificate program in alcohol and drug abuse education. Dr. Appel retired from the full-time faculty of the Department of Psychology on June 30, 2006. He now lives in the San Francisco Bay area (165 Pierce Street; Daly City , CA 94015) and would love to hear from the faculty, staff, and especially students and former students at USC. (

Representative Publications:
Barry, H. III & Appel, J. B. (2009). Early preclinical studies of discriminable effects of sedative and hallucinogenic drugs. Psychopharmacology, 203, 193-201.

Oswald, B. B. & Appel, J. B. (2006). Using a drug vs. other discrimination procedure to elucidate the stimulus properties of MDMA ("ecstasy"). annual meeting of the Society for Neuroscience, Atlanta. Satellite Session of the Society for the Stimulus Properties of Drugs.

Maddox, S. A, Oswald, B. B., Appel, J. B., & Powell, D. A. (2006). Post-training Lesions to the Medial Prefrontal Cortex Interfere with Retrieval on a Trace Eyeblink Conditioning Task. The annual meeting of the Society for Neuroscience. Atlanta.

West, B., Appel, J., Marder, D., Pulz, J. Pikalov, A., Marcus, R. Guttierrez-Esteinou, Crandall, D. (2005). Aripiprazole effects in schizophrenia patients with high or low agitation. The annual meeting of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology, Waikoloa, HI.

Appel, J. B. (2005). LSD: The prototype hallucinogen. In R. Wright & J. M. Miller (Eds.),. Encyclopedia of Criminology. 2, 944-948. New York: Routeledge.

Alici, T., and Appel, J. B. (2004). Increasing the selectivity of the discriminative stimulus effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol: Complete substitution by methanandamide. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior. 79, 431-437.

Appel, J. B., West, W. B., and Buggy, J. (2004). LSD, Serotonin (5 HT) and the evolution of a behavioral assay. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 27, 693-701.

Fulk, L.J., Stock, H.S., Marshall, J.D., Lynn, A.J., Appel, J.B., Buggy, J., and Hand, G.A. (2001). Chronic treadmill training reduces acute anxiety-related behaviors in rats. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts, 27, Program No. 572, 14.

Appel, J. B. and West, W. B. (2000). Blockade of the behavioral effects of PCP by serotonergic hallucinogens. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts, 26, 1932.

West, W. B., Luo, A., Pechersky, K., Chachich, M. E. and Appel, J. B. (2000). Antagonism of a PCP drug discrimination by hallucinogens and related drugs. Neuropsychopharmacology, 22, 618-625.

West, W. B., Ross, K. C., Chachich, M. E., Howard, F., Coleman, J. R and Appel, J. B. (1999). Possible neuroprotective effects of LSD on PCP-enhanced audiogenic seizures. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts, 25, 61.

Chachich, M. E., West, W. B., McLaughlin, J. and Appel, J. B. (1999). Differential substitution of dopaminergic drugs in a cocaine-other drug discrimination procedure. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts, 25, 1873.

Appel, J. B., West, W. B., Rolandi, W. G., Alici, T., and Pechersky, K. (1999). Increasing the selectivity of drug discrimination procedures. Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior,, 64, 353-358.